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Burbujas de Ocio. Convergence Culture: Where Old and New Media Collide. Confronting the challenges of participatory culture: Media education for the 21st century. The Economics of Attention: Style and Substance in the Age of Information. The Language of new media.
Software Takes Command, new York, nY: Cezary Pietrzak. Periodismo integrado: Tech Crunch.
Real e virtual: While immersed, the user cannot see the real world around him. Presence — Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 6, 4 , Remediation - Understanding New Media. The online journalism handbook: A sociedade em rede. Jornalismo Online vol 1 , pp. Mobile is eating the world. Kipper, g. Augmented reality: Knight, m. Social media for journalists: Laws of Media. The language of new media.
Diffusion of innovations. Introduction to augmented reality.
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Revista Geminis, 4 1 , p. Para uma ilosoia da tecnologia. Dentre elas, pode-se destacar: A revista e seu jornalismo. Canavilhas Orgs. Presence, 19 4 , — Dourado, t. Revistas em formatos digitais: Burbujas de ocio: Longhi, R. Infograia online: Manual de Jornalismo na Internet.
A arte de tecer o presente: Hamlet no Holodeck: Jornalismo de revista em redes digitais. Modelos de Jornalismo Digital. Jornalismo para tablets: Jornalismo de revista. Baudrillard , p. De acordo com canavilhas Questionou-se aos inquiridos sobre o tempo que despendem no Facebook. Do total dos inquiridos, obtivemos: Entre as respostas: Bibliograia e fontes consultadas aguado, j. Audiencias activas: Nuevas oportunidades y nuevos retos para el sector audiovisual.
A sociedade de consumo. Do jornalismo online ao webjornalismo: D Convergencia Digital. La tercera ola. Ou airmam: Castells , p. Hoje pode-se fazer com o celular uma fotograia de futebol, por exemplo. Kossoy, , p. Por isso, ele classiica o fotojornalismo em duas vertentes: Dantas, K. Doutor itamar de morais nobre. Kossoy, b. Revista Fotografe melhor. Encontro Nacional de Pesquisadores em Jornalismo — sbpjor, v. Nos quadros, semanais e inal, optamos apenas por apresentar os elementos narrativos que tenham sido observados. Se, como airmam Canavilhas e Satuf , p. Canavilhas org.
Podemos dividir as pautas em dois tipos: Depois disso, o processo torna-se reticular. Como assinalado anteriormente, os proissionais saem em busca de suas fontes para consolidar a proposta. O Jornal: Quinn, s. Convergent Journalism. The fundamentals of Multimedia Reporting. Convergencia digital. Wolf, m. Apoiados sobre os resultados da icha, concordamos com as autoras. The Case of Localization. Working paper. What the Internet Is Hiding from You. Winer, D. Disponible en: Hacia um nuevo sistema digital.
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Towards a Sociological Theory of the Mobile Phone. Sociological Institute. Kaasinen, e. Journalism Practice, 6, De medios de masas a medios personales. Westlund, o. Cross-Media News Work. Sensemaking of the Mobile Media R evolution. Paulo e Folha de S. Brazilian Journalism Research, 9, Jornalismo opinativo. Domingo, D. Four Dimensios of Journalistic Convergence: A preliminary approach to current media trends at Spain.
Recuperado de https: Touch my paper: Qualquer pessoa, a qualquer momento e em qualquer lugar, pode testemunhar um qualquer acontecimento que regista e partilha. Bibliograia aguado, j. Camargo, I. COM, From http: Differently from action of transpose of content from a media to another. Retrieved November 15, , from http: That is Internet of Things borowicz, However, there is a great dificulty for that the local information is shared and debated in a synergistic manner, despite how the traditional media supports local area in its news portals.
This news business model is not suficient to leverage a conversation about local issues of collective interest. When this condition is fulilled, the concept named Hyperlocal is used to describe it. The deinition to Hyperlocal concept has changed during the last years, altering its meaning to others conceptions. According to Metzgar et al. However, this deinition is well accepted in studies about the representation of communities via networks. This paper adopts the scope that deines Hyperlocal Communication focused in a small geographic area, allowing the concept of hyperlocal journalism to emerge by connected digital systems that concentrate local information of social relevance.
While highly effective dissemination can take place in community forums, face to face, or newsletters, online hyperlocal communication tools can 9 john, p. When citizens can get relevant local information socially and in a structured way, it allows better decision making and the belonging sensation, bringing the communities together for good decisions. When aggregating these data, an image of a city emerges. When set up for such, another important characteristic this technology is to access information in real time.
The real time is an attribute of great signiicance to information about local events. When detecting these events on a city level, various types should be considered: When it utilizes a mobile service, this fraction fraction of queries with local intent may be twice as high. This approach can be by speciic focus on journalism or not. Xia et al. Why the internet of things narrative has to change. Digital government: Drawing on mobile crowds via social media. Multimedia Systems, 18 1 , 53— Deining hyperlocal media: Federal Communications Commission.
Durante a semana analisada, os gols dos jogos que envolvem os principais times de porto alegre foram disponibilizados para escuta sob demanda. Aqui desenham-se os peris das emissoras. Datos de libre acceso del Banco Mundial: Spreadable Media: Creating Value and Meaning in a Networked Culture. Kischinhevsky, m. Kochhann, r. Brazilian Journalism Research. El consumo de Internet en el mundo. Quadros, m.
Narrativas transmedia: Deusto s. De que forma? Um resultado que signiicou o aumento de 21 por cento face ao ano transato. Citizen Jounalism - Global Perspetives. The App Effect. Collaborative Online News Production. Kovach, b. Amateur Images and Global News. How Facebook is chaging the way its users consume journalism. Weeks, b. Desenvolvimento socioambiental ufpa. Pioneiros sim, mas Network Journalism: Australian Journalism Review 23 2 , pp. Dentzien, trad. Revista Contracampo, 28 3 , Domingues ed. Jornalismo na web: AgoraNet 2.
Recuperado de: Revista PJ: For this reason, it's usually easier to create a policy where you forbid everything except for what you explicitly allow. Nowadays, databases are cardinal components of any web based application by enabling websites to provide varying dynamic content. Since very sensitive or secret informations can be stored in such database, you should strongly consider to protect them somehow. To retrieve or to store any information you need to connect to the database, send a legitimate query, fetch the result, and close the connecion. See how an attacker can tamper with an SQL query.
As you can realize, PHP cannot protect your database by itself. The following sections aim to be an introduction into the very basics of how to access and manipulate databases within PHP scripts. Keep in mind this simple rule: In the more place you take the more action to increase the protection of your database, the less probability of that an attacker succeeds, and exposes or abuse any stored secret information. Good design of the database schema and the application deals with your greatest fears. The first step is always to create the database, unless you want to use an existing third party's one.
When a database is created, it is assigned to an owner, who executed the creation statement. Usually, only the owner or a superuser can do anything with the objects in that database, and in order to allow other users to use it, privileges must be granted. Applications should never connect to the database as its owner or a superuser, because these users can execute any query at will, for example, modifying the schema e.
You may create different database users for every aspect of your application with very limited rights to database objects. The most required privileges should be granted only, and avoid that the same user can interact with the database in different use cases. This means that if intruders gain access to your database using one of these credentials, they can only effect as many changes as your application can. You are encouraged not to implement all the business logic in the web application i. If the system evolves, new ports will be intended to open to the database, and you have to reimplement the logic in each separate database client.
Over and above, triggers can be used to transparently and automatically handle fields, which often provides insight when debugging problems with your application or tracing back transactions. If either of them is done, then monitoring your traffic and gaining informations in this way will be a hard work. SSL is an on-the-wire protocol. Once an attacker gains access to your database directly bypassing the webserver , the stored sensitive data may be exposed or misused, unless the information is protected by the database itself.
Encrypting the data is a good way to mitigate this threat, but very few databases offer this type of data encryption. The easiest way to work around this problem is to first create your own encryption package, and then use it from within your PHP scripts.
PHP can assist you in this case with its several extensions, such as Mcrypt and Mhash , covering a wide variety of encryption algorithms. The script encrypts the data be stored first, and decrypts it when retrieving. See the references for further examples how encryption works. In case of truly hidden data, if its raw representation is not needed i.
The well-known example for the hashing is storing the MD5 hash of a password in a database, instead of the password itself. See also crypt and md5. Many web developers are unaware of how SQL queries can be tampered with, and assume that an SQL query is a trusted command. It means that SQL queries are able to circumvent access controls, thereby bypassing standard authentication and authorization checks, and sometimes SQL queries even may allow access to host operating system level commands. Direct SQL Command Injection is a technique where an attacker creates or alters existing SQL commands to expose hidden data, or to override valuable ones, or even to execute dangerous system level commands on the database host.
This is accomplished by the application taking user input and combining it with static parameters to build a SQL query. The following examples are based on true stories, unfortunately. Owing to the lack of input validation and connecting to the database on behalf of a superuser or the one who can create users, the attacker may create a superuser in your database. Splitting the result set into pages It is common technique to force the SQL parser to ignore the rest of the query written by the developer with -- which is the comment sign in SQL.
A feasible way to gain passwords is to circumvent your search result pages. What the attacker needs only is to try if there is any submitted variable used in SQL statement which is not handled properly. If your database supports the UNION construct, the attacker may try to append an entire query to the original one to list passwords from an arbitrary table. Using encrypted password fields is strongly encouraged. Listing out articles These queries are also threatened by chopping and appending an entirely new query to it.
But the attacker might fiddle with the SET clause. In this case some schema information must be possessed to manipulate the query successfully. This can be acquired by examing the form variable names, or just simply brute forcing. There are not so many naming convention for fields storing passwords or usernames. From resetting a password A frightening example how operating system level commands can be accessed on some database hosts. Some of the examples above is tied to a specific database server. This does not mean that a similar attack is impossible against other products.
Your database server may be so vulnerable in other manner. You may plead that the attacker must possess a piece of information about the database schema in most examples. You are right, but you never know when and how it can be taken out, and if it happens, your database may be exposed. If you are using an open source, or publicly available database handling package, which may belong to a content management system or forum, the intruders easily produce a copy of a piece of your code.
It may be also a security risk if it is a poorly designed one. These attacks are mainly based on exploiting the code not being written with security in mind. Never trust on any kind of input, especially which comes from the client side, even though it comes from a select box, a hidden input field or a cookie. The first example shows that such a blameless query can cause disasters. Never connect to the database as a superuser or as the database owner. Use always customized users with very limited privileges. Check if the given input has the expected data type.
PHP has a wide range of input validating functions, from the simplest ones found in Variable Functions and in Character Type Functions e. A more secure way to compose a query for paging. Quote each non numeric user input which is passed to the database with addslashes or addcslashes.
See the first example. As the examples shows, quotes burnt into the static part of the query is not enough, and can be easily hacked. Do not print out any database specific information, especially about the schema, by fair means or foul. You may use stored procedures and previously defined cursors to abstract data access so that users do not directly access tables or views, but this solution has another impacts. Besides these, you benefit from logging queries either within your script or by the database itself, if it supports. Obviously, the logging is unable to prevent any harmful attempt, but it can be helpful to trace back which application has been circumvented.
The log is not useful by itself, but through the information it contains. The more detail is generally better. With PHP security, there are two sides to error reporting. One is beneficial to increasing security, the other is detrimental. A standard attack tactic involves profiling a system by feeding it improper data, and checking for the kinds, and contexts, of the errors which are returned. This allows the system cracker to probe for information about the server, to determine possible weaknesses.
For example, if an attacker had gleaned information about a page based on a prior form submission, they may attempt to override variables, or modify them: The PHP errors which are normally returned can be quite helpful to a developer who is trying to debug a script, indicating such things as the function or file that failed, the PHP file it failed in, and the line number which the failure occured in.
This is all information that can be exploited. Especially dangerous is running code from known sources with built-in debugging handlers, or using common debugging techniques. If the attacker can determine what general technique you are using, they may try to brute-force a page, by sending various common debugging strings: Exploiting common debugging variables.
Regardless of the method of error handling, the ability to probe a system for errors leads to providing an attacker with more information. If the attacker was looking at an. A function error can indicate whether a system may be running a specific database engine, or give clues as to how a web page or programmed or designed.
This allows for deeper investigation into open database ports, or to look for specific bugs or weaknesses in a web page. By feeding different pieces of bad data, for example, an attacker can determine the order of authentication in a script, from the line number errors as well as probe for exploits that may be exploited in different locations in the script.
A filesystem or general PHP error can indicate what permissions the webserver has, as well as the structure and organization of files on the web server. Developer written error code can aggravate this problem, leading to easy exploitation of formerly "hidden" information. There are three major solutions to this issue. The first is to scrutinize all functions, and attempt to compensate for the bulk of the errors. The second is to disable error reporting entirely on the running code. The third is to use PHP's custom error handling functions to create your own error handler. Depending on your security policy, you may find all three to be applicable to your situation.
By turning off the ability for any user-submitted variable to be injected into PHP code, you can reduce the amount of variable poisoning a potential attacker may inflict. They will have to take the additional time to forge submissions, and your internal variables are effectively isolated from user submitted data.
While it does slightly increase the amount of effort required to work with PHP, it has been argued that the benefits far outweigh the effort. The greatest weakness in many PHP programs is not inherent in the language itself, but merely an issue of code not being written with security in mind. For this reason, you should always take the time to consider the implications of a given piece of code, to ascertain the possible damage if an unexpected variable is submitted to it. Dangerous Variable Usage. In general, security by obscurity is one of the weakest forms of security.
But in some cases, every little bit of extra security is desirable. A few simple techniques can help to hide PHP, possibly slowing down an attacker who is attempting to discover weaknesses in your system. Another tactic is to configure web servers such as apache to parse different filetypes through PHP, either with an. You can then use misleading file extensions: Hiding PHP as another language. PHP, like any other large system, is under constant scrutiny and improvement. Each new version will often include both major and minor changes to enhance and repair security flaws, configuration mishaps, and other issues that will affect the overall security and stability of your system.
Like other system-level scripting languages and programs, the best approach is to update often, and maintain awareness of the latest versions and their changes. Maneiras de alternar do HTML. Mesmo que ele esteja configurado por default no php. A tag de fechamento? Por exemplo. Umbooleano expressa um valor de verdade. Para converter explicitamente um valor para booleano, utilize-se dos modificadores bool ou boolean. Literais inteiras. Para converter explicitamente um valor para inteiro, utilize-se dos modificadores int ou integer. Isto pode causar erros confusos: Alguns exemplos para tornar isso mais claro:.
Caracteres nas strings podem ser acessados apenas especificando o deslocamento baseado em zero do caracter desejado depois da string dentro de chaves. Alguns exemplos com strings. Strings podem ser concatenados utilizando o operador '. Um array pode ser criado com o construtor de linguagem array.
Uma chave pode ser tanto um inteiro ou uma string. Illegal offset type. Para mudar um certo valor, apenas assimile um novo valor para nele. Este exemplo cria um array na base 1. Array baseado em 1. Porque o valor de um array pode ser qualquer coisa, isto pode ser outro array. Isto pode criar arrays recursivos e multidimensionais. Callback functions can not only be simple functions but also object methods including static class methods. A PHP function is simply passed by its name as a string. You can pass any builtin or user defined function with the exception of array , echo , empty , eval , exit , isset , list , print and unset.
A method of an instantiated object is passed as an array containing an object as the element with index 0 and a method name as the element with index 1. Static class methods can also be passed without instantiating an object of that class by passing the class name instead of an object as the element with index 0. A moldagem de tipos no PHP funciona como no C: Convertendo para booleano. Convertendo para inteiro.
No PHP 4. Por exemplo:. Um exemplo:. O exemplo anterior poderia ser rescrito como:. Segue um exemplo demonstrando o poder das superglobais:. Considere o seguinte exemplo:. Como explicado, antes do PHP 4. E no PHP ele era sempre on. Se estiver ativada, o valor It's "PHP! Veja o manual de setcookie para mais detalhes e exemplos. Exemplo setcookie. Para ilustrar, veja o seguinte exemplo: O nome de uma constante tem as mesmas regras de qualquer identificador no PHP.
Somente dados escalares boolean , integer , float e string pode ser colocados em constantes. Definindo Constantes. O PHP suporta um operador de controle de erro: Uma regra simples para lembrar disso: O PHP oferece uma sintaxe alternativa para algumas das suas estruturas de controle: A seguir temos uma estrutura if com elseif e else no formato alternativo: Loops do..
Considere os seguintes exemplos. Mais alguns exemplos para demonstrar os usos: Veja o exemplo abaixo para maiores detalhes. Note que mais de um evento pode ocorrer em cada tick. Exemplos de require s simples. Exemplos de include s simples. O PHP4 suporta ambos: Qualquer tipo pode ser retornado, incluindo arrays e objetos.
Veja abaixo para mais detalhes.
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As classes precisam ser definidas antes de serem utilizadas! Nada ocorre. Nem o PHP 3 ou o 4 chamam automaticamente os construtores da classe base a partir do construtor da classe derivada. O operador:: Escrevemos A:: E apenas mais um exemplo final. Entenda-o com cuidado. Ou seja: Only "Basic" authentication is supported. See the header function for more information.
PHP Version Note: HTTP Authentication example. Compatibility Note: Please be careful when coding the HTTP header lines. Perhaps by sending a query to a database, or by looking up the user in a dbm file. Watch out for buggy Internet Explorer browsers out there. They seem very picky about the order of the headers. Configuration Note: PHP uses the presence of an AuthType directive to determine whether external authentication is in effect.
Note, however, that the above does not prevent someone who controls a non-authenticated URL from stealing passwords from authenticated URLs on the same server. Both Netscape Navigator and Internet Explorer will clear the local browser window's authentication cache for the realm upon receiving a server response of This can effectively "log out" a user, forcing them to re-enter their username and password.
Some people use this to "time out" logins, or provide a "log-out" button. This behavior is not required by the HTTP Basic authentication standard, so you should never depend on this. Testing with Lynx has shown that Lynx does not clear the authentication credentials with a server response, so pressing back and then forward again will open the resource as long as the credential requirements haven't changed.
If safe mode is enabled, the uid of the script is added to the realm part of the WWW-Authenticate header. NO PHP 4. Lembre-se que desde o PHP 4. Uma linha como esta deve fazer o truque: Assim seu script de manuseio do PUT tem que copiar este arquivo em outro lugar. For example, you can use this to open a file on a remote web server, parse the output for the data you want, and then use that data in a database query, or simply to output it in a style matching the rest of your website.
Getting the title of a remote page.
You can also write to files on an FTP server provided that you have connected as a user with the correct access rights. You can only create new files using this method; if you try to overwrite a file that already exists, the fopen call will fail. To connect as a user other than 'anonymous', you need to specify the username and possibly password within the URL, such as 'ftp: Storing data on a remote server. You might get the idea from the example above that you can use this technique to write to a remote log file.
Unfortunately that would not work because the fopen call will fail if the remote file already exists. To do distributed logging like that, you should take a look at syslog. A remote client disconnect is usually caused by the user hitting his STOP button. You can decide whether or not you want a client disconnect to cause your script to be aborted. Sometimes it is handy to always have your scripts run to completion even if there is no remote browser receiving the output.
The default behaviour is however for your script to be aborted when the remote client disconnects. If you do not tell PHP to ignore a user abort and the user aborts, your script will terminate. With a shutdown function, when the remote user hits his STOP button, the next time your script tries to output something PHP will detect that the connection has been aborted and the shutdown function is called. This function will return TRUE if the connection was aborted. Your script can also be terminated by the built-in script timer.
The default timeout is 30 seconds. When the timer expires the script will be aborted and as with the above client disconnect case, if a shutdown function has been registered it will be called. This function will return TRUE if a timeout caused the shutdown function to be called. This is possible if you tell PHP to ignore user aborts.
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PHP will still note the fact that a user may have broken the connection, but the script will keep running. If it then hits the time limit it will be aborted and your shutdown function, if any, will be called. This function returns a bitfield of the active states. So, if both states are active it would return 3, for example. Persistent connections are SQL links that do not close when the execution of your script ends. When a persistent connection is requested, PHP checks if there's already an identical persistent connection that remained open from earlier - and if it exists, it uses it.
If it does not exist, it creates the link. An 'identical' connection is a connection that was opened to the same host, with the same username and the same password where applicable. There are other extensions that provide persistent connections, such as the IMAP extension. People who aren't thoroughly familiar with the way web servers work and distribute the load may mistake persistent connects for what they're not.
In particular, they do not give you an ability to open 'user sessions' on the same SQL link, they do not give you an ability to build up a transaction efficiently, and they don't do a whole lot of other things. In fact, to be extremely clear about the subject, persistent connections don't give you any functionality that wasn't possible with their non-persistent brothers.
This has to do with the way web servers work. There are three ways in which your web server can utilize PHP to generate web pages. When run this way, an instance of the PHP interpreter is created and destroyed for every page request for a PHP page to your web server. Because it is destroyed after every request, any resources that it acquires such as a link to an SQL database server are closed when it is destroyed.
In this case, you do not gain anything from trying to use persistent connections -- they simply don't persist. The second, and most popular, method is to run PHP as a module in a multiprocess web server, which currently only includes Apache. A multiprocess server typically has one process the parent which coordinates a set of processes its children who actually do the work of serving up web pages.
When each request comes in from a client, it is handed off to one of the children that is not already serving another client. This means that when the same client makes a second request to the server, it may be serviced by a different child process than the first time. What a persistent connection does for you in this case it make it so each child process only needs to connect to your SQL server the first time that it serves a page that makes use of such a connection.
When another page then requires a connection to the SQL server, it can reuse the connection that child established earlier. The last method is to use PHP as a plug-in for a multithreaded web server. The behavior is essentially the same as for the multiprocess model described before. The answer here is extremely simple -- efficiency. Persistent connections are good if the overhead to create a link to your SQL server is high. Whether or not this overhead is really high depends on many factors.
Like, what kind of database it is, whether or not it sits on the same computer on which your web server sits, how loaded the machine the SQL server sits on is and so forth. The bottom line is that if that connection overhead is high, persistent connections help you considerably. They cause the child process to simply connect only once for its entire lifespan, instead of every time it processes a page that requires connecting to the SQL server. This means that for every child that opened a persistent connection will have its own open persistent connection to the server.
For example, if you had 20 different child processes that ran a script that made a persistent connection to your SQL server, you'd have 20 different connections to the SQL server, one from each child. Note, however, that this can have some drawbacks if you are using a database with connection limits that are exceeded by persistent child connections. If your database has a limit of 16 simultaneous connections, and in the course of a busy server session, 17 child threads attempt to connect, one will not be able to.
If there are bugs in your scripts which do not allow the connections to shut down such as infinite loops , the database with only 16 connections may be rapidly swamped. Check your database documentation for information on handling abandoned or idle connections. There are a couple of additional caveats to keep in mind when using persistent connections.
One is that when using table locking on a persistent connection, if the script for whatever reason cannot release the lock, then subsequent scripts using the same connection will block indefinitely and may require that you either restart the httpd server or the database server. Another is that when using transactions, a transaction block will also carry over to the next script which uses that connection if script execution ends before the transaction block does.
Better yet, avoid the problem entirely by not using persistent connections in scripts which use table locks or transactions you can still use them elsewhere. An important summary. Persistent connections were designed to have one-to-one mapping to regular connections. That means that you should always be able to replace persistent connections with non-persistent connections, and it won't change the way your script behaves. It may and probably will change the efficiency of the script, but not its behavior!
The PHP safe mode is an attempt to solve the shared-server security problem. It is architecturally incorrect to try to solve this problem at the PHP level, but since the alternatives at the web server and OS levels aren't very realistic, many people, especially ISP's, use safe mode for now. Security and Safe Mode Configuration Directives. Whether to enable PHP's safe mode. Read the Security and chapter for more information. The restriction specified is actually a prefix, not a directory name. When you want to restrict access to only the specified directory, end with a slash.
If PHP is used in safe mode, system and the other functions executing system programs refuse to start programs that are not in this directory. Setting certain environment variables may be a potential security breach. This directive contains a comma-delimited list of prefixes. In Safe Mode, the user may only alter environment variables whose names begin with the prefixes supplied here. This directive contains a comma-delimited list of environment variables that the end user won't be able to change using putenv. Limit the files that can be opened by PHP to the specified directory-tree, including the file itself.
When a script tries to open a file with, for example, fopen or gzopen, the location of the file is checked. When the file is outside the specified directory-tree, PHP will refuse to open it. All symbolic links are resolved, so it's not possible to avoid this restriction with a symlink. The special value.
Under Windows, separate the directories with a semicolon. On all other systems, separate the directories with a colon. This directive allows you to disable certain functions for security reasons. It takes on a comma-dilimited list of function names. This directive must be set in php. See also: You can also disable individual functions. If we add this to our php. This is a still probably incomplete and possibly incorrect listing of the functions limited by safe mode.
Safe mode limited functions. Diretivas php. Arguments passed to script. Use -- args when first argument starts with - or script is read from stdin. Para prevenir isso, utilize o separador de argumentos Desta maneira ele pode ser executado como um script shell ou PERL normalmente: Sinta-se livre para abrir um aviso de bug ou enviar um e-mail para phpdoc lists.
Esteja avisado. Um exemplo simples de como escrever um programa para a linha de comando segue abaixo:. Se o argumento for --help , -help , -h ou -? Para instalar o PHP no Apache 1. Exemplo 1. Colocando engine off nos lugares apropriados do arquivo httpd. Antes do PHP 4. Depois do PHP 4. Retorna um array com todos os headers de resposta do Apache. Esta funcionalidade foi acrescentada a partir do PHP 4. Essencialmente, ela foi renomeada.
In other words a strict check takes place so the string representations must be the same. Please note that this function only checks one dimension of a n-dimensional array. Em palavras: Exemplo 2. In otherwords a strict type check is executed so the string representation must be the same. Exemplo 3. Criando um array de arrays. O primeiro argumento de todos deve ser um array.
Ordenando um array multi-dimensional. Tem o mesmo efeito de: A partir do PHP 4. Retorna um array contendo os elementos removidos. Normalmente, func recebe dois argumentos: A passagem das chaves e do terceiro argumento para func foi adicionada no PHP 4. Para reiniciar o ponteiro, use reset. Retorna um array a partir dos valores fornecidos.
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Exemplo de array. Em resumo, ela faz o oposto de extract. Exemplo de compact. Exemplo de count. Exemplos de each. Exemplo simples de end. Esse argumento pode receber os seguintes valores: Exemplo de extract. O exemplo acima produziria: Tem Irix. Exemplo de krsort. Exemplo de ksort. Exemplo de list. Exemplo de natsort. Exemplo de rsort. Exemplo de shuffle. Exemplo de sort.
Exemplo de uksort. Exemplo de usort. Exemplo de usort usando um array multi-dimensional. The aspell functions allows you to check the spelling on a word and offer suggestions. Neither this module, nor those versions of aspell library are supported any longer. If you want to use spell-checking capabilities in PHP, use pspell instead. It uses pspell library and works with newer versions of aspell. You need the aspell library, available from: See also pspell.
Use the fast-exponentiation method to raise x to the power y with respect to the modulus modulus. The optional scale can be used to set the number of digits after the decimal place in the result. The following two statements are functionally identical. The bcpowmod version however, executes in less time and can accept larger parameters. Because this method uses the modulus operation, non-natural numbers may give unexpected results.
A natural number is any positive non-zero integer. See also bcpow , and bcmod. Retorna a raiz quadrada do operador. See also bcpow. Exemplo de bzcompress. Exemplo de bzerror. Retorna a string de erro de qualquer erro retornado pelo ponteiro de arquivo bz. Abre um arquivo bzip2. Exemplo de bzopen.
Exemplo de bzread. Exemplo de bzwrite. The calendar extension presents a series of functions to simplify converting between different calendar formats. The intermediary or standard it is based on is the Julian Day Count. To convert between calendar systems, you must first convert to Julian Day Count, then to the calendar system of your choice. Julian Day Count is very different from the Julian Calendar! For more information on Julian Day Count, visit http: For more information on calendar systems visit http: Excerpts from this page are included in these instructions, and are in quotes.
To get these functions to work, you have to compile PHP with --enable-calendar. The windows version of PHP has built in support for this extension. You do not need to load any additional extension in order to use these functions. This function will return the number of days in the month of year for the specified calendar. See also jdtounix. Since PHP 4. This function will generate a warning if the year is outside of the range for UNIX timestamps i.
The Equinox is assumed to always fall on 21st March, so the calculation reduces to determining the date of the full moon and the date of the following Sunday. The algorithm used here was introduced around the year by Dionysius Exiguus. Under the Julian Calendar for years before a simple year cycle is used to track the phases of the Moon. Under the Gregorian Calendar for years after - devised by Clavius and Lilius, and introduced by Pope Gregory XIII in October , and into Britain and its then colonies in September two correction factors are added to make the cycle more accurate.
Returns the number of days after March 21 on which Easter falls for a given year. If no year is specified, the current year is assumed. The method parameter was also introduced in PHP 4. See the calendar constants for more valid constants. These routines only convert dates in years 1 through 14 Gregorian dates 22 September through 22 September This more than covers the period when the calendar was in use. Although this function can handle dates all the way back to B. The Gregorian calendar was not instituted until October 15, or October 5, in the Julian calendar.
Some countries did not accept it until much later. Most European countries used the Julian calendar prior to the Gregorian. Calendar functions. Returns the day of the week. Can return a string or an integer depending on the mode. Tabela 1. Calendar week modes. Returns a string containing a month name. Calendar modes.
The time returned is localtime and not GMT. See also unixtojd. Although this function can handle dates all the way back to the year 1 B. The Jewish calendar has been in use for several thousand years, but in the early days there was no formula to determine the start of a month. A new month was started when the new moon was first observed. The calendar was created in 46 B. Also, the beginning of a year varied from one culture to another - not all accepted January as the first month. Remember, the current calendar system being used worldwide is the Gregorian calendar.
The following references will outline the process. CCVS has been discontinued by Red Hat and there are no plans to issue further keys or support contracts. It is similar in design and has documented PHP support! You will then need to configure PHP with the --with-ccvs option. If CCVS is in a non-standard location, run configure with: Additionally, a ccvsd process will need to be running for the configurations you intend to use in your PHP scripts.
Additional information about CCVS can be found at http: RedHat maintains slightly outdated but still useful documentation at http: COM is a technology which allows the reuse of code written in any language by any language using a standard calling convention and hiding behind APIs the implementation details such as what machine the Component is stored on and the executable which houses it. It separates implementation from interface. COM encourages versioning, separation of implementation from interface and hiding the implementation details such as executable location and the language it was written in.
If NULL , localhost is assumed. To allow DCOM com. COM example 1. COM example 2. If omitted, the type of value is used. Consult the msdn library for additional information. Esta funcionalidade foi adicionada no PHP 4. This documentation should be read alongside the ClibPDF manual since it explains the library in much greater detail. Actually, you should not even try it, the results are unpredictable. I can't oversee what the consequences in a multi threaded environment are.
According to the author of ClibPDF this will change in one of the next releases current version when this was written is 1. If you need this functionality use the pdflib module. It also provides the ability to pass coordinates in a predefined unit length. Another nice feature of ClibPDF is the fact that any page can be modified at any time even if a new page has been already opened. Most of the functions are fairly easy to use.
The most difficult part is probably creating a very simple PDF document at all. The following example should help you to get started. It creates a document with one page. The page contains the text "Times-Roman" in an outlined 30pt font. The text is underlined. It is available for download from FastIO , but requires that you purchase a license for commercial use.
In addition you can specify the jpeg library and the tiff library for ClibPDF to use. The pdflib distribution contains a more complex example which creates a series of pages with an analog clock. A simple tutorial 3. Security II. Tipos 8. Constantes Operadores Estruturas de Controle Classes e Objetos Cookies Gerenciar o upload de arquivos Using remote files Connection handling Persistent Database Connections Safe Mode Apache II. Aspell functions [deprecated] IV. Calendar functions VII.
Classes e Objetos X. Crack functions XII. Cybercash payment functions XIV. Character type functions XVII. Image functions XLII. Informix functions XLIV. InterBase functions XLV. Mcrypt Encryption Functions LV. Ming functions for Flash LX. Mohawk Software session handler functions LXV. Stream functions XCIX. String functions C. Tokenizer functions CII. Variable Functions CIV. W32api functions CVI. Extending PHP 4. Overview Extension Possibilities Source Layout Creating Extensions Using Extensions Troubleshooting Source Discussion Accepting Arguments Creating Variables Duplicating Variable Contents: The Copy Constructor Returning Values Printing Information Startup and Shutdown Functions Calling User Functions Initialization File Support Where to Go from Here Some Configuration Macros API Macros General Information Mailing lists Obtaining PHP Database issues